Category Archives: Maori

Divided Issues: the Myth Of the Unified Maori.

Listener 10 June 1995.

Keywords: Maori

Our race relations are troubled by the Pakeha myth of the unified Maori. “Maori” did not exist before the arrival of the European. Since as far as they knew those that lived here were all the people in the world, they did not need a collective name for themselves. (Similarly “Earthling” arose with possibility of others out in space).

A Data Base Of Iwi

Report for The Waitangi Tribunal (May 1995)

keywords: Maori; Statistics

The Data Base

Every individual living in New Zealand on the night of 5 March 1991, filled in a census form, which included a question about iwi membership.[1] Some 511,278 respondents (15.2 percent of the national total) gave a positive answer, of some form, to this question.[2] In addition 165,913 households (14.1 percent of the national total) were classified as Maori dwelling households with an iwi identification.

This computer program provides socioeconomic information about those respondents, and their households grouped together by iwi. (It does not hold unit data records.) The following is a description of the contents of the program, and the means of accession to the data. It should be emphasized that the access protocols are not simple, because as explained below, there are some restrictions on access. In addition there are numerous caveats which should be taken into consideration when obtaining and interpreting the data.

A Quiet Revolutionary: Eru Woodbine Pomare: 1942-1995

He Worked for the Health of all New Zealanders
Listener: 18 February, 1995.

Keywords: Health; Maori;

Eru Pomare, who died suddenly in January, had an impressive whakapapa. A great-great grandmother, Kahe Te Rau O Te Rangi, was one of the few women to sign the Treaty of Waitangi; another, Maora Pani, saw a Captain Cook arrive; his grandfather, Sir Maui Pomare, a doctor and MP, was central to the first Maori health revolution at the turn of the century, which saw a dying race recover in vigour and numbers; his grandmother, Lady Miria Woodbine Pomare, who had a major influence on his life, deserved her own entry in The Book of New Zealand Women, the entry being written by her most eminent grandchild.

The Maori in the Labour Force

Labour Employment Work in New Zealand, 1994, p.206-213.

Keywords: Labour Studies; Maori;

Executive Summary

* The Maori is in an inferior position in the labour force compared to the non-Maori.

* The Maori are more likely to be Not-in-the-Labour Force and more likely to be unemployed.

* When these two effects are combined together the Maori unemployment rate is not the 2.7 times the non-Maori rate that the official definitions showed in 1991, but 3.9 for males and 4.5 times for females.

* The analysis confirms that when the Maori is employed, they are more likely to be in the secondary part of the labour market, that is with low quality jobs in terms of renumeration, working conditions, career opportunities, and job security.

* Crucial for understanding the labour market is the flux between the unemployed, those not-in-the-labour market, and those in secondary employment. This churning means there is a dynamic process going on.

* Because of the higher incidence of not-in-the-labour force, and in secondary employment it is unwise to focus on Maori unemployment. At issue is the high proportion of the Maori in the secondary labour market in comparison with the non-Maori. Some policies merely shift people between the different parts of the secondary labour market.

* Econometric work suggests that only one third of the difference between Maori and non-Maori employment participation can be explained by the personal characteristics measured in the population census.

* The report acknowledges there may be other personal characteristics not measured, which also have an influence.

* However it seems likely that the most important determinants of the differences are social variables, summarized in the concept of “maoriness”. A possible practical example is that it is known that the most important source of job recruitment involves family and friends. The Maori is handicapped in doing this because of their lower employment rates, but also possibly because the Maori network is not as geared as the non-Maori family to carry out this task.

Contract, Covenant, Compact: the Social Foundations Of New Zealand Governance

WHAKAPAPA: This is an April 1994 revision of an address to the Spring Lecture Series on Political Integrity, for the St Andrew’s Trust for the Study of Religion and Society, Thursday 4th of October, 1990. It contains material from a presentation to Forum North, a celebration of the Treaty of Waitangi, held at Whangarei, 10 November, 1990. The original address is available on Replay Radio, following its broadcast on National Radio, October 23, 1990. The almost full text of the original address was published in Socialist Politics 90/3,4, and an extract was published in The Dominion, 15 October,1990.)

Keywords: Governance; History of Ideas, Methodology & Philosophy; Maori;

The moral authority of governance in New Zealand is based on a social contract, perhaps moreso than any other country. The “Social Contract” rests on the proposition that mankind is both an individual and a social animal. This creates a tension, for living in a society involves some alienation of one’s individuality. Yet to live outside society involves a loss of one’s full potential. There is no perfect solution to the tension, although many have been proffered.

The Maori Electoral Enrolment Option Campaign

Evidence to the Waitangi Tribunal. subsequently attached as evidence to the High Court. (February 1994) The additional evidence to the High Court was primarily rebuttal evidence. (August 1994) Extracts from it are appended to this report.

Keywords: Governance; Maori; Statistics;

1. I am a research economist and social statistician, and I work as a consultant.

2. I have been asked by the Maori Congress to assist the Waitangi Tribunal by presenting and reviewing some statistics on various expenditures by the Crown on matters similar to the that of informing and enabling Maori to enrol on the Maori roll.

The Maori Geothermal Claim: a Pakeha Economist’s Perspective

Paper to be presented to the Waitangi Tribunal to assist an inquiry into various Maori claims concerning geothermal resources (Wai 153). September 1993?

Keywords: Environment & Resources; Maori; Political Economy & History;

1. Introduction and Disclaimer

1.1 As the title emphasises, this paper is no more than an attempt by a Pakeha economist to canvas some issues associated with the Maori claim to geothermal resources.

Te Whakapakari Paapori, Ohanga O Muriwhenua

Submission to the Waitangi Tribunal on behalf of the Ruunanga o Muriwhenua. The views expressed are my own, and should not be taken to reflect those of the Ruunanga, the Muriwhenua Iwi, the Maori, the Tribunal, or the Crown.) Revised 22 June 1993

Keywords: Growth & Innovation; Maori;


1.1 This report has been commissioned to assist the Waitangi Tribunal in its deliberations on the claims of the Ruunanga o Muriwhenua, on behalf of the Muriwhenua Iwi of the Far North of New Zealand, as a part of the settlement for long standing grievances.

Tikanga and Te Oneroa-o-tohe

Listener 20 May 1991, republished in in J. Gilbert, G. Jones, T. Vitalis, & R. Walker Introduction to Management in New Zealand (1992) p.77.

Keywords: Environment & Resources; Maori;

I was recently involved in a claim to the Waitangi Tribunal by the five Muriwhenua iwi, in the far north, for the return of their rangatiratanga over Te Oneroa-O-Tohe or, as Pakeha call it, Ninety Mile Beach. In the course of preparing my evidence I was struck by the depletion of kaimoana – offshore fish and shellfish – over the period of European involvement. We are so familiar with the destruction of fish, forest, bird and soil in the last 150 years that it is only rarely that we are made to confront the issue as to why it happened.

Evidence Of Brian Easton with Respect to Te Oneroa-o-tohe

This is a slightly revised version of the evidence submitted to the Waitangi Tribunal. As well as a number of minor ammendments read to the Tribunal, paragraph 4.4 has been substantially ammended and paragraph 3.21-4 has been added. 26 March 1991.)

Keywords: Environment & Resources; Maori;

1. Introduction and Disclaimer

1.1 My name is Brian Easton. By profession I am an economist and social statistician.

1.2 I have been asked by Counsel for the Muriwhenua Iwi to assist the Waitangi Tribunal by providing some guidance on the economic issues related to their claims about Te Oneroa-o Tohe (Ninety Mile Beach), and on other claims they have made in the area of the Aupouri Peninsula, based on breaches of the principles of the Tiriti o Waitangi, which they say have occurred.

The Maori Broadcasting Claim: a Pakeha Economist’s Perspective

Paper presented to the Waitangi Tribuna to assist an inquiry into a claim by the New Zealand Maori Council and Nga Kaiwhakapumau I Te Reo relating to broadcasting (Wai 150), October 1990, at the Waiwhetu Marae.

Keywords: Environment & Resources: Maori; Political Economy & History;

Introduction and Disclaimer

1.1 As the title of this paper emphasises that it is no more than an attempt by a Pakeha economist to write an account of the Maori claim to the radio spectrum and related broadcasting issues.

The Green Maori

Listener 14 May 1990.

Keywords: Environment & Resources; Maori; Political Economy & History;

THE PAKEHA asked the Maori, “Do you claim all the airspace?”

“We claim rangatiratanga of all the space between Papa and Rangi,”

“Even that which the Russian sputniks go through?”

“Yes, The Maori recognise no boundaries. Even for the realm of Tangaroa. Perhaps if the Maori had been negotiating the Law of the Sea, the outcome would have been different.”

The Pakeha looked at the Maori with amazement, concluding if I judge his expression right, that the rangatira – despite his American PhD – was not quite with it. The claim over expanses over which the Maori had no statutory authority and no means of policing seemed ludicrous.

The very same week the New Zealand Government signed an international declaration which prohibited driftnet fishing in waters well outside our 320km limit and far beyond any realm our navy could plausibly police, Yet no one, Pakeha or Maori, concluded the agreement was ludicrous or the Prime Minister who sponsored it – and also has an American doctorate – was not quite with it.

For Whom the Treaty Tolls

Listener 5 February, 1990.

Keywords: History of Ideas, Methodology & Philosophy; Maori; Political Economy & History;< Across the bay from the great Waitangi Marae is the picturesque town of Russell. A hundred and fIfty years ago Kororareka, as it was then, housed “the scum of the Pacific”: ruffians, rogues, and ratbags from Europe, prone to drunkenness, violence and turmoil. If Thomas Hobbes had been at the .signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, he would have looked at the unrest across the water and given a knowing smile.

Riches Without Wealth

Listener 24 November, 1979, republished in The Listener Bedside Book, No 3 (1999) p.182-183.

Keywords: History of Ideas, Methodology & Philosophy; Maori;

Raymond Firth’s study of the pre-European Maori economy, The Economics of the New Zealand Maori, is half a century old. In 1929 Firth, a young New Zealand economics graduate, decided to pursue economic anthropology, and undertook a doctorate, supervised by Bronislaw Malinkowski, at the University of London. Today, at 80, Firth is one of the grand old men of anthropology , with honorary doctorates from seven prestigious universities.